The goal of "A Christian Affirmation" is to clarify our responsibilities to God, to one another, and to the world as members of Churches of Christ at the opening of the third millennium in which Christ has been named as Lord. Anything that relates to Christian discipleship in our time is relevant to the issues the statement seeks to raise. The following suggestions are therefore not exhaustive, but they may prove especially helpful. We do not agree with every point made in every book or journal listed, but we have found them helpful aids to reflection and pray they may be found of use by others as well.

If you wish to suggest additional resources, please send an email to, including a link where possible. We will review your suggestions and post those we also find helpful.

Additional Resources

Christian Studies Journal , a publication of the faculty of Austin Graduate School of Theology

Restoration Movement Pages : a very informative collection of material on the American Restoration Movement

James S. Cutsinger, ed., Reclaiming the Great Tradition: Evangelicals, Catholics, and Orthodox in Dialogue (Downers Grove, Ill.: Intervarsity Press, 1997)

Gary E. Gilley, This Little Church Went to Market: The Church In The Age Of Entertainment (Xulon Press), 144 pages.   A highly informative and easy to read introduction to the current fascination with marketing Christianity like "fudge and shoes."

James Thompson, Strategy for Survival — encouragement for a tired church from the book of Hebrews (chapters in PDF)

James Thompson,  The Church in Exile — counsel from 1 Peter for Christians living in a non-Christian world (chapters in PDF)

Michael Weed and Jeffrey Peterson, editors, Things That Matter: A Guide to Christian Faith

William Willimon, This Culture is Overrated — on the culture the gospel creates, and "why
it's dangerous to want to relate the gospel to the modern world"

Notable and Quotable

     Our unity in the truth is more evident in our quarreling about the truth than in our settling for something less than the truth. At the same time we recognize that, short of the end time, none of us possesses the truth entirely, exhaustively, and without remainder. Such possession awaits the consummation when, as Paul says in 1 Corinthians 13, we know even as we are known. Each of us and each of our traditions is held accountable to the great Tradition, including the Scriptures, which is the deposit of the truth. The definitive exegesis of the Tradition is an eschatological event. Along the way of history we try to derive from Scripture and the church's reflection upon its experience the formulae and criteria by which we might better discern that which is biblical, catholic, and orthodox. Thus, from the apostolic era onward there have been numerous variations on, for instance, St. Vincent of  Lerin's rule of faith: quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus creditum est (what has been believed everywhere, always, and by all). Such formulae are probably inescapable and just as probably will always be inadequate.
      But we have no choice but to keep trying. The truth of unity and the unity of truth give us no choice.
           Richard John Neuhaus, "A New Thing: Ecumenism at the Threshold of the Third
           Millennium," in Reclaiming the Great Tradition: Evangelicals, Catholics, and Orthodox
           in Dialogue
 (ed. James S. Cutsinger), p. 58

All Things To All Men
      Did Paul self-consciously adopt a strategy of flexibility in order to the advance the gospel? Paul's own statement in 1 Corinthians 9:19-23 is commonly understood as the motto that governed his missions . . . To modern hearers, the words sound sensitive, cosmopolitan, and all-inclusive.
       . . . The context indicates that Paul is not making a major point about his flexibility as a missionary. The larger issue is the fact that he has given up his freedom in order to be the "slave of all." To be "slave of all" is not the approach that would have appealed to the Corinthians . . .
He thus speaks the same message to Jews and Greeks, because he is not free to alter it. Indeed, his message is far more important than his strategy. . .
      His statement that he is "all things to all men " is not meant to encourage the missionary's flexibility, but to describe his willingness to be the slave of the gospel and of others. Nevertheless, Paul is a model for missions at another level. He is the reminder to all missionaries that the gospel is a trust that one may not alter to fit the audience.
            James Thompson, "All Things To All Men": Paul's Motto For Missions?" Leven

Another Kind of Religion
     There is no great religious leader–from the Buddha to Moses to Jesus to Mohammed to Luther–who offered people what they want. Only what they need. But television is not well suited to offering people what they need. It is "user friendly." It is too easy to turn off. . . . As a consequence, what is preached on television is not anything like the Sermon on the Mount. Religious programs are filled with good cheer. They celebrate affluence. Their featured players become celebrities. Though their messages are trivial, the shows have high ratings, or rather, because their messages are trivial, the shows have high ratings.
       I believe I am not mistaken in saying that Christianity is a demanding and serious religion. When it is delivered as easy and amusing, it is another kind of religion altogether.
            Neil Postman, Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show

Authority of Scripture
      . . . when we are dealing with the divine and holy mysteries of the faith, we must not deliver anything whatsoever, without the sacred Scriptures, nor let ourselves be misled by mere probability, or by marshalling of arguments. And do not simply credit me, when I tell you these things, unless you get proof from the Holy Scriptures of the things set forth by Me. For this salvation of ours by faith is not by sophistical use of words, but by proof from the sacred Scriptures.
            Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem (d. 387), Catechetical Lectures 4:17

      For Paul, as for all early Christian teachers, baptism was highly significant as the initiation into the Body of Christ… . The position was simple: the aura was a society with its own forms of organized life, and it had always recognized faith by administering baptism, and thereby conferring membership of the Body.  Hence Paul could appeal directly to baptism as a fact with a generally recognized significance, and draw from it conclusions regarding what entrance into the people of God involved.
           C, H. Dodd, The Epistle of Paul to the Romans

     I am neither the first nor the only Reformed theologian to have difficulties with infant baptism. Karl Barth's reservations about it are well known. I do not think that infant baptism is well supported either by the New Testament or by theological considerations . . . I have arrived at my position both on biblical and on theological grounds . . .
            Jurgen Moltmann, Interview with Miroslav Volf in Christian Century

      With baptism the Christian walks "in newness of life," and this new life begins in the context of the fellowship of believers (cf. Rom 6:4). Baptism makes the baptized men and women Christ's property and incorporates them into his body, that is, the church of Jesus Christ (cf. 1 Cor 12:12-13)…. Baptism therefore initiates for Christians a status of becoming, and this status lasts until the parousia (cf. 1 Thess 4:13-18; 1 Cor 15:51).
           Peter Stuhlmacher, Revisiting Paul 's Doctrine of Justification

     . . . a great deal happened in the church between 200 and about A.D. 500. The church achieved a modus vivendi with the establishment, integrating some of the ceremonies of Caesar into its own rites. Infant baptism became the sign of the disintegration of our rites as well of our self-respect. Infant baptism led, almost inevitably, to a reduction of rite so that the visible word of washing virtually disappeared from the ritual. Sprinkling virtually silenced the visible word of the bath. The physical inconvenience of the bath signified so well the renunciation and risk involved in discipleship. The politics of baptism is a politics of renunciation, and our rites must be strong enough to signify the cost.
            William Willimon, Peculiar Speech

Baptism Reconsidered  
      When individuals in the first century heard "Repent and be baptized" or "Believe in the Lord Jesus and be baptized," none of them thought, "Can I do the first but not the second?" No one came to the conversion experience with questions as to whether baptism was necessary for becoming a Christian because the apostolic preaching stated that they must be baptized. Thus the rejection of baptism was a rejection of the divine program for conversion! To reject baptism was to reject the gospel messaged preached by Peter, Paul, and the other apostles who spoke of the need of baptism. Divine provision was made for those who, like the thief on the cross, could not be baptized, but to refuse the community's baptism was the same as a rejection of the Christ whom the community preached. It involved a clear unwillingness to obey the gospel preached by the apostles. For the New Testament church the statement "Unless you are baptized, you cannot be saved" was simply another way of saying, "Unless you believe you cannot be saved." 
        . . . Decisions concerning baptism today are often made not on the basis of obedience or disobedience but on the basis of misinformation or confusion. Lacking the context of the apostolic preaching and teaching, one's understanding of the biblical data may be "a poor reflection as in a mirror" (1 Cor 13:). Such confusion is clearly not damnable. One is saved not by perfect knowledge but by faith!
      . . . Baptist theology also deviates from the New Testament pattern. Although repentance, faith, confession, and regeneration are associated with baptism, baptism is separated in time from these four components. Thus baptism is an act which witnesses to a prior experience of repentance, faith, confession, and regeneration, As a result such passages as Romans 6:4; 1 Peter 3:21, Titus 3:5, John 3:3f, and others, which associate baptism with the experience of conversion are embarrassing to many Baptists and often receive a strained exegesis at their hands. 
            Robert H. Stein, Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 2 (Spring 1998)

Becoming Evangelicals
      While we were once seen as more sacramental, both in regard to baptism and the Lord's Supper, we no longer think of ourselves as having much in common with other sacramental fellowships, like the Episcopal or Catholic churches. For instance, weekly observance of the Lord's Supper is a distinctive that makes our fellowship very attractive to former Roman Catholics, but many new churches have minimized their focus on the Lord's Supper. Some have even made it an addendum to the worship service, available after the benediction. . . . We are often accepting of typically Evangelical theology, including many aspects of Calvinism. That may result from paying little attention to theological formation among our leaders. It also might be a sign of our tendency to use the programs of denominational megachurches without paying attention to all the theological assumptions behind those programs.
            Paul S. Williams, "10 Changes in a New Century," Christian Standard

A center without a circumference is just a dot, nothing more. Without boundaries a circle could not be a circle. If the circle of faith is seeking to identify its center, it cannot do so without identifying its margins and perimeters.
            Thomas C. Oden, in Christian Century

Christ and Culture
     While no Christian tradition can prevent itself from becoming partly enculturated, the question arises, How much should Christians accommodate their faith to culture in order to speak to that culture? How can one become all things to all people without becoming no longer oneself? As evangelicalism continues to lower its doctrinal and ethical “walls” in the name of providing a user-friendly church, what is it able to offer to those who discover Christian conversion, not merely through their own experiences of God but as participants in he historic faith and practice of the church. In short, what message is evangelicalism able to give society that culture is not already giving it?
           D.H. Williams, Evangelicals and Tradition: The Formative Influence of the Early Church

Church and Society
      God help the church that so blends into society that there is no longer any difference! Such a church will produce no quality of behavior other than that which society in general produces. It will take on the prejudices of society, and even demand that its gospel support those prejudices. It will make itself a tool of society whose main business it is to protect and to dignify with divine support the best interests of its constituents. And that is stark tragedy! The end of it is a poverty-stricken church which utters no Word, states no demands, summons to no destiny--but has a host of activities you would enjoy.
           John Bright, The Kingdom of God (1953)

Church Growth
      To my mind, the greatest flaw in the church growth movement is its use of sociological fact as a thermometer for measuring Christian health. In the process, calculation is valued as faith and success is valued as fidelity, and the church is pointed more strongly toward the continuance of the world than toward its end.
      . . . it is dangerous when congregations are encouraged to justify themselves on the grounds of being sociologically fortunate or having the sociological intelligence to achieve worldly success rather than being led to examine themselves according to Christ's standards.
      What so often happens in the church's experience is that a technique of worldly effectiveness looks good and is adopted. And then, because success is the only consideration (techniques have no other purpose), the gospel message is subtly pruned, shaped, and contorted until it fits the technique.
            Vernard Eller, The Outward Bound

Church Music
       Much Victorian church music, the American gospel song, and the pop which began to come into the church in the late fifties are examples of music, which, musically speaking, omit the cross. In general, they lack the musical “bite” to express anything but sentimentalized and romanticized notions of Christianity; there is no struggle here, no musical wrestling, no humble strength. The whole impression is one of comfortableness and niceness. While it is necessary to be understanding of the composing, dissemination, and usage of such music without being harshly judgmental in attitude, it must be said that it has had and is having a large part to play in promoting Christian infantilism in which being a Christian means a life of plenty, freedom from suffering, the use of God as a personal valet to meet one’s self-wants, a certain status of acceptability, and a comfortable niche in the world—in short, to have a God whose purpose is to serve man. Much of this music, in being trite, repetitious, dull, and musically silly, gives off the general aura of comfortableness of the rocking chair, not the discipline of the cross. We need to see that the cross and one’s being crucified daily with Christ as Paul says, musically requires that which does more than console, lull to sleep, or appear pretty, nice, and entertaining.
            Calvin M. Johansson, Music and Ministry: A Biblical Counterpoint

      I wonder if anyone who needs a snappy song service can really appreciate the meaning of the cross.
            Reinhold Niebuhr, Leaves from the Notebook of a Tamed Cynic

Consumers' "Christ"
      Marketing savvy demands that the offense of the cross must be downplayed. Salesmanship requires that negative subjects like divine wrath be avoided. Consumer satisfaction means that the standard of righteousness cannot be raised too high. The seeds of a watered-down gospel are thus sown in the very philosophy that drives many ministries today.
            John MacArthur, Jr., Ashamed of the Gospel

Evaluating Worship
      The polarization over worship services . . . is the result of very different understandings of the nature of the service and very different criteria in planning. What are the guidelines for our satisfying the consumer demand of people who measure us against other forms of amusement? Is our service designed for "seekers" who visit the assembly?
      With his reminder of the central Christian convictions in 1 Timothy 2:3-7, Paul intends for Christians to place their worship in the larger context of God's plan for the world. The criterion for public worship . . . is neither the taste of the worshipers nor the demands of outsiders. . .. Paul challenges us to place Christian worship in the context of God's plan for the world and its salvation.
           James Thompson, Equipped for Change

An Evangelical Historian’s Assessment of Evangelicalism
      Common, generic Evangelicalism and the activistic denominations that make up Evangelicalism do not possess theologies full enough, traditions of intellectual practice strong enough, or conceptions of the world deep enough to sustain a full-scale intellectual revival.
      Without strong theological traditions, most evangelicals lack a critical element required for making intellectual activity both self-confident and properly humble, both critical and committed. In order to advance responsible Christian learning, the vitality of commitment must be stabilized by the ballast of traditions. Tradition without life might be barely Christian, but life without tradition is barely coherent.
           Mark Noll, "Lowest Common Denominator Evangelicalism,"
           First Things 38 (October, 2004)

Evangelical Loss of Coherency
       Theological commentators have noted many times that evangelicalism is suffering from a loss of coherency, as the very content of the historical faith no longer informs the central task of the church. Preaching easily slips into the mode of moralizing or anecdotal storytelling,a nd eventually the flock of God can no longer stomach a diet that might cause them to think deeply about the content of the Christian faith.   . . .Theology is therefore an elective of the Christian life, not necessary and too divisive for a religion of civility. In their quest to reach culture, evangelical congregations have come to reflect the cultural preferences of their audiences: anti-institutional, informal, nondogmatic, therapeutic, and unaware of the difference between tolerance an moral confusion.
       Yet many evangelicals are discovering that no amount of creative packaging and marketing of the gospel will rescue church ministry if they lose the theological center that enables them to define the faith and prescribe the kinds of intellectual and practical relations it should have in the world.
            D.H. Williams, Evangelicals and Tradition: The Formative Influence of the Early Church

An Evangelical on Evangelical Captivities
      The evangelical Church, whose taste for what is popular appears to be insatiable, is in danger of being destabilized by the cultural captivity of some of its popular "thinkers," as well as by the academic captivity of some of its scholars.
            David F. Wells, Losing Our Virtue

An Evangelical on the Temptations of Evangelicals
       Today, evangelicals should be concerned not only because the secular world has opted for the centrality of experience and power over and above truth, but because some evangelicals are being tempted to do the same! If we think we can offer an experience that will compete effectively with other postmodern religious experiences, we tread ground alien to the New Testament. Paul never argued that Christ could top the mystery religions and other ecstatic cults in terms of religious experience. He offered the truth–Jesus Christ and him crucified. This was the power of God to which he wanted them exposed (1 Cor 2:1-5).
            Dennis McCallum in The Death of Truth

     Just as the Christian should not be constantly feeling his spiritual pulse, so, too, the Christian community has not been given to us by God for us to be constantly taking its temperature. The more thankfully we daily receive what is given to us, the more surely and steadily will fellowship increase and grow from day to day as God pleases.
            Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Life Together

     Nothing is easier than to stimulate the glow of fellowship in a few days of life together, but nothing is more fatal to the sound, sober brotherly fellowship of everyday life. . . . We have no claim on such experiences, and we do not live with other Christians for the sake of acquiring them. It is not the experience of Christian brotherhood, but the solid and certain faith in brotherhood that holds us together. . . .We are bound together by faith, not by experience.
            Deitrich Bonhoeffer, Life Together

God In Modern Religiosity
       [R]eligion is put into the service not of gratitude, reverence, and service to God but of human interests, morally both trivial and serious. Religion–its theologies, its cultic practices, its rhetoric, its symbols, its devotions, becomes unwittingly justified for its utility value. God is denied as God; God becomes an instrument in the service of human beings rather than human beings instruments in the service of God.
            James Gustafson, Ethics From a Theocentric Perspective

The Gospel
     The challenge of the gospel is not the intellectual dilemma of how to make an archaic system of belief compatible with modern belief systems. The challenge of Jesus is the political dilemma of how to be faithful to a strange community, which is shaped by a story of how God is with us.
            Stanley Hauerwas and William H. Willimon, Resident Aliens

      In a time when there is much talk of the need for more organized and scientifically managed methods of church growth, our study of the conversions in Acts raises some tough questions for proponents of many of these methods. If the church is only about the wholesale “winning of souls” by whatever method is deemed most effective, then conversion has become the end of faith rather than its beginning. In Luke-Acts conversion is a by-product of the gospel, the result of one’s encounter with the power of the Spirit, not the gospel. Luke has no interest in the utilitarian question of how people become converted or how the church ought to evangelize, that technique is most effective or what method yields the most certain results. These are stories about God’s actions, not the church’s programs.
            William H. Willimon, Acts

The Highest Court of Appeal
      Reflection upon the Church of the New Testament will lead us to conclude that not all the subsequent developments in the Church can be authorized by its origins; there have been errors and false developments in its history. The New Testament message, as the original testimony, is the highest court to which appeal must be made in all the changes of history. It is the essential norm against which the Church of every age has to measure itself. The New Testament Church, which, beginning with its origins in Jesus Christ, is already the Church in the fullness of its nature, is therefore the original design; we cannot copy it today, but we can and must translate it into modern terms. The Church of the New Testament alone can show us what the original design was.
          Hans Küng, The Church

Jesus' Bad News
Jesus has some bad news for us. He would seem to criticize what we feel to be our own needs and seek to give us new needs, the preaching of which may drive people away. What the "purpose-driven" approach needs to provide, it seems to me, is a more biblically grounded vision of the person of Jesus and the work of the church–one that won't necessarily draw crowds.
            Jason Byassee, "Re-purposed," Christian Century, March 9, 2004

Mission by Marketing
      Growing churches are creating an atmosphere, an environment of fun. So fun has replaced holiness as the church's goal. Having a good time has become the criterion of an excellent, growing church, since fun and entertainment is what consumers want. Yet Scripture references encouraging churches to become havens of fun are, as one may suspect, sadly lacking. John MacArthur observes, "Many Christians have the misconception that to win the world to Christ we must first win the world's favor. If we can get the world to like us, they will embrace our Savior. That is the philosophy behind the user-friendly church movement.
            Gary E. Gilley, This Little Church Went To Market: The Church In The Age Of

      Charles Colson tells about an evangelical church that decided it needed to grow in membership. The pastor first commissioned a market survey. It found that many people were turned off by the term "Baptist." The church changed its name. The survey showed that people wanted accessibility, so the church put up a new building off the freeway. It had beamed ceilings, stone fireplaces, and no crosses or other religious symbols that might make people feel uncomfortable. Then the pastor decided to stop using theological language. "If we use the words redemption or conversion," he reasoned, "they think we are talking about bonds." He stopped preaching about Hell and damnation and shifted to more positive topics. Sure enough, the church grew. "There's a spirit of putting people over doctrine," gushed one member. "The church totally accepts people as they are without any sort of don'ts and dos."
            Gene Edward Veith, Jr., Postmodern Times: A Christian Guide to Contemporary
            Thought and Culture

       I believe that God can work through any style of music, but that some styles are more appropriate than others . . . I want to argue that our current infatuation with contemporary Christian music, sacred pop land rock music, signifies the church's surrender to secular culture. While the tunes are often charming, they are often poorly constructed, cliched, and shallow. Some of them . . . are ill-suited to the purpose; they employ awkward leaps and rhythms that are difficult for congregations to sing. Some of their texts . . . are bad poetry. Designed for immediate effect, they rarely have the depth of character or longevity to challenge us to spiritual maturity.
            Steven F. Darsey, Connection

     Any institution remains “relevant” as long as it has something distinctive to offer. Religious institutions are no exceptions. The religious institution that becomes indistinguishable from other institutions . . . in very short order has great difficulties answering the question of why it should exist as a separate institution at all; at this point it has become “irrelevant” in the strictest sense of the word–the sense of redundancy and obsolescence.
            Peter Berger, Religion and Society Report, January 1988

Rules of the Tribe
     Ours is the only era in the entire history of human life on this planet in which the "elders" of the tribe ask its newer members what the tribal rules and standards of expected behavior should be.
            Paul Ramsey, in Theology Today

Seeker Service Dilemma
     Suppose that in your worship planning you try to keep seekers in mind, and suppose you assume that these are largely non-religious people. Suppose you further assume that if you are to appeal to these non-religious people, your contemporary services must also become increasingly non-religious, at least in any traditional way.
       Suppose a seeker came away . . . and said to herself, Now I understand what the Christian faith is all about: it's not about lament, or repentance, or humbling oneself before God to receive God's favor. It's got nothing to do with a lot of boring doctrines. It's not about the hard, disciplined work of mortifying our old nature and learning to make God's purposes our own. It's not about the inevitable failures in this project, and the terrible grace of Jesus Christ that comes so that we may begin again. Not at all! I had it wrong! The Christian faith is mainly about celebration and fun and personal growth and five ways to boost my self-esteem!
      Suppose your ten-year-old does not like your heart-healthy dinner menu, so you arrange a seeker meal for him in which you offer some non-threatening Pringles. You do this in order to set up his taste buds for baked potatoes. I wonder how often that would work.
            Cornelius Plantinga, Jr., "The Seeker Service Dilemma," Perspectives

      Success is determined by the statistics regarding such things as membership, attendance, giving, budget, staff, facilities, and activities. Success equals the number of participants multiplied by the degree of their satisfaction and support. . . . “Fidelity,” on the other hand, is faithfulness to the gospel, conformity to the mind of Christ, being what the biblical revelation calls the church to be. . . . The two are not so nearly alike or so intimately connected that one choice can include both. No, if the congregation chooses success over fidelity, then that choice is itself an infidelity, an act of unfaithfulness. If, on the other hand, the congregation chooses fidelity over success, success may follow or it man not–there is no guarantee, no promise, no assurance, and no connection. Success can and does come to churches that are completely unfaithful, and success can be created through factors that have nothing to do with fidelity.
            Vernard Eller, The Outward Bound

      Jesus commanded us not to succeed, but to obey; not to sell the gospel, but to proclaim it. Jesus was not found "acceptable"; he was nailed to a cross. And he told his disciples to expect the same kind of reaction, for human nature will not change and the proclamation of the gospel should not change. It is not our job to convert the world or to fill churches; that is God's job. Ours is to sow the seed, without sugar-coating it; God's is to make it root and grow.
            Peter Kreeft, Back to Virtue

     What so often happens in the church’s experience is that a technique of worldly effectiveness looks good and is adopted. And then, because success is the only consideration (techniques have no other purpose), the gospel message is subtly pruned, shaped, and contorted until it fits the technique. “Please all men in all things,” yes; but if the gospel is falsified in the process, men will not be saved. It is quite possible for Christ to be taken captive by a technique rather than the technique being taken captive for Christ.
            Vernard Eller, The Outward Bound

     Cultures come and cultures go, and even the most suspicious student of his culture is a product of that culture, blind to some of its greatest faults. The wise Christian will look to the Tradition, and particularly to that which Christians have together held across many times and cultures, to keep himself from being seduced by his own culture. As he descends into the dark cave of contemporary culture, the wise explorer will stay tied by a thick, strong line to the place from whence he came, which is lit by a long accumulated stock of candles and torches and lamps.
            David Mills, Touchstone

      In Isaiah's day the human crowds were still present for worship; it was God who had opted out. The problem for religious leaders then was not how to get the people to come back to attending worship; it was how to get God to attend. It might be wise even in the present to look at worship from that perspective. Perhaps we are spending far too much energy trying to figure out how to adapt worship so as to interest and attract a disinterested public. Perhaps we might better spend our time trying to please a potentially disinterested and increasingly irritated God.
           J. J. M. Roberts, "Contemporary Worship in Light of Isaiah's Ancient Critique,”
           in Worship and the Hebrew Bible: Essays in Honour of John T. Willis

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